Greene presented this Proudhonian Mutualism in its purest and most systematic form.". Henry david Thoreau (18171862) was an important early influence in individualist anarchist thought in the United States and Europe. 69 Thoreau was an American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, philosopher, and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his books Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. Later Benjamin Tucker fused Stirner's egoism with the economics of Warren and Proudhon in his eclectic influential publication Liberty. From these early influences individualist anarchism in different countries attracted a small but diverse following of bohemian artists and intellectuals, 70 free love and birth control advocates (see anarchism and issues related to love and sex 71 72 individualist naturists nudists (see anarcho-naturism freethought and. These authors and activists included Oscar Wilde, emile Armand, han Ryner, henri zisly, renzo novatore, miguel Gimenez igualada, adolf Brand and lev chernyi among others. In his important essay the soul of Man under Socialism from 1891 Oscar Wilde defended socialism as the way to guarantee individualism and so he saw that "With the abolition of private property, then, we shall have true, beautiful, healthy Individualism.
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56 57 An influential form of individualist anarchism, called "egoism 58 or egoist anarchism, was expounded by one of the earliest and report best-known proponents of individualist anarchism, the german Max Stirner. 59 Stirner's The Ego and Its Own, published in 1844, is english a founding text of the philosophy. 59 According to Stirner, the only limitation on the rights of the individual is their power to obtain what they desire, 60 without regard for God, state, or morality. 61 to stirner, rights were spooks in the mind, and he held that society does not exist but "the individuals are its reality". 62 Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw unions of egoists, non-systematic associations continually renewed by all parties' support through an act of will, 63 which Stirner proposed as a form of organization in place of the state. 64 Egoist anarchists claim that egoism will foster genuine and spontaneous union between individuals. 65 "Egoism" has inspired many interpretations of Stirner's philosophy. It was re-discovered and promoted by german philosophical anarchist and lgbt activist John Henry mackay. Josiah Warren is widely regarded as the first American anarchist, 66 and the four-page weekly paper he edited during 1833, The peaceful revolutionist, was the first anarchist periodical published. 67 For American anarchist historian Eunice minette Schuster "It is at Proudhonian Anarchism was to be found in the United States at least as early as 1848 and that it was not conscious of its affinity to the Individualist Anarchism of Josiah Warren and Stephen.
For influential Italian anarchist Errico malatesta "All anarchists, whatever tendency they belong to, are individualists in some way or other. But the opposite is not true; not by any means. The individualists are thus divided into two distinct categories: one which claims the right to full development for all human individuality, their own and that of others; the other which only thinks about its own individuality and has absolutely no hesitation in sacrificing work the individuality. The Tsar of all the russias belongs to the latter category of individualists. We belong to the former." 49 Individualist anarchism edit main article: Individualist anarchism Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over any kinds of external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological. 50 51 Individualist anarchism is not a single philosophy but refers to a group of individualistic philosophies that sometimes are in conflict. In 1793, william Godwin, who has often 52 been cited as the first anarchist, wrote political Justice, which some consider to be the first expression of anarchism. 53 54 Godwin, a philosophical anarchist, from a rationalist and utilitarian basis opposed revolutionary action and saw a minimal state as a present "necessary evil" that would become increasingly irrelevant and powerless by the gradual spread of knowledge. 53 55 Godwin advocated individualism, proposing that all cooperation in labour be eliminated on the premise that this would be most conducive with the general good.
He wrote "no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions." 31 In the 17th century, liberal ideas began to influence governments in Europe, in nations such as The netherlands, Switzerland, England and Poland, but they were strongly opposed, often. In the 18th century, in America, the first modern liberal state was founded, without a monarch or a hereditary aristocracy. 32 The American Declaration of Independence includes the words (which echo locke) nationalism "all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness ; that to insure these rights. According to john. Gray, the essence of liberalism is toleration of different beliefs and of different ideas as to what constitutes a good life. 34 Anarchism edit main article: Anarchism Anarchism is a set of political philosophies that hold the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful, 35 36 and often advocate stateless societies. While anti-statism is central, some argue 41 that anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of human relations, including, but not limited to, the state system.
26 Liberalism edit main article: Liberalism Liberalism (from the latin liberalis, "of freedom; worthy of a free man, gentlemanlike, courteous, generous 27 is the belief in the importance of individual freedom. This belief is widely accepted in the United States, europe, australia and other Western nations, and was recognized as an important value by many western philosophers throughout history, in particular since the Enlightenment. It is often rejected by collectivist, Islamic, or confucian societies in Asia or the middle east (though taoists were and are known to be individualists). 28 The roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius wrote praising "the idea of a polity administered with regard to equal rights and equal freedom of speech, and the idea of a kingly government which respects most of all the freedom of the governed". 29 Liberalism should not be confused with modern liberalism in the United States, 30 and should be referred to as classical liberalism to avoid ambiguity. Liberalism has its roots in the Age of Enlightenment and rejects many foundational assumptions that dominated most earlier theories of government, such as the divine right of Kings, hereditary status, and established religion. John Locke is often credited with the philosophical foundations of classical liberalism.
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To live is the rarest thing in the world. Most people exist, that is all. Oscar Wilde, the soul of Man under Socialism, 1891 Individualists are chiefly concerned with protecting individual autonomy against obligations imposed by social institutions (such as the state or religious morality). Susan Brown "Liberalism and anarchism are two political philosophies that are fundamentally concerned with individual freedom yet differ from one another in very distinct ways. Anarchism shares with liberalism a radical commitment to individual freedom while rejecting liberalism's competitive property relations." 6 civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports civil liberties, or which emphasizes the supremacy of individual rights and personal freedoms over and against any kind. 23 civil libertarianism is not a complete ideology ; rather, it is a collection of views on the specific issues of civil liberties and civil rights.
Because of this, a civil libertarian outlook is compatible with many other political philosophies, and civil libertarianism is found on both the right and left in modern politics. 24 For scholar Ellen meiksins wood "there are doctrines of individualism that are opposed to lockean individualism. And non-lockean individualism may encompass socialism ". 25 British Historians Emily robinson, camilla Schofield, Florence sutcliffe-Braithwaite, and Natalie thomlinson have argued that by the 1970s Britons were keen about defining and claiming their individual rights, identities and perspectives. They demanded greater personal autonomy and self-determination and less outside control. They angrily complained that the 'establishment' was tort withholding. They argue this shift in concerns helped cause Thatcherism, and was incorporated into Thatcherism's appeal.
17 Jung considered individuation to be the central process of human development. 18 In l'individuation psychique et collective, gilbert Simondon developed a theory of individual and collective individuation in which the individual subject is considered as an effect of individuation rather than a cause. Thus, the individual atom is replaced by a never-ending ontological process of individuation. Individuation is an always incomplete process, always leaving a "pre-individual" left-over, itself making possible future individuations. 19 The philosophy of Bernard Stiegler draws upon and modifies the work of Gilbert Simondon on individuation and also upon similar ideas in Friedrich nietzsche and Sigmund Freud.
For Stiegler "the i, as a psychic individual, can only be thought in relationship to we, which is a collective individual. The i is constituted in adopting a collective tradition, which it inherits and in which a plurality of i 's acknowledge each other's existence." 20 Methodological individualism edit methodological individualism is the view that phenomena can only be understood by examining how they result from. 21 In economics, people's behavior is explained in terms of rational choices, as constrained by prices and incomes. The economist accepts individuals' preferences as givens. Becker and Stigler provide a forceful statement of this view: 22 On the traditional view, an explanation of economic phenomena that reaches a difference in tastes between people or times is the terminus of the argument: the problem is abandoned at this point to whoever. On our preferred interpretation, one never reaches this impasse: the economist continues to search for differences in prices or incomes to explain any differences or changes in behavior. Political individualism edit with the abolition of private property, then, we shall have true, beautiful, healthy Individualism. Nobody will waste his life in accumulating things, and the symbols for things.
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Jean-Jacques rousseau, claims that his concept of " general will " in the " social contract " is not the simple collection of individual wills and that it furthers the interests of the individual (the constraint of law itself would be beneficial for the individual. Societies and groups can differ in the extent to which they are based upon predominantly "self-regarding" (individualistic, paradise and/or self-interested) behaviors, rather than "other-regarding" (group-oriented, and group, or society-minded) behaviors. Ruth Benedict made a distinction, relevant in this context, between "guilt" societies (e.g., medieval Europe ) with an "internal reference standard and "shame" societies (e.g., japan, "bringing farm shame upon one's ancestors with an "external reference standard where people look to their peers for feedback. 14 Individualism is often contrasted 5 either with totalitarianism or with collectivism, but in fact, there is a spectrum of behaviors at the societal level ranging from highly individualistic societies through mixed societies to collectivist. Individuation principle edit main article: Individuation The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, 15 describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things. 16 For Carl Jung, individuation is a process of transformation, whereby the personal and collective unconscious is brought into consciousness (by means of dreams, active imagination or free association to take some examples) to be assimilated into the whole personality. It is a completely natural process necessary for the integration of the psyche to take place.
In the 15th century and earlier, and also today within the fields of statistics and metaphysics, individual means "indivisible typically describing any numerically singular thing, but sometimes meaning "a person." (q.v. "The problem of proper names. From the 17th century on, individual indicates separateness, as in individualism. 13 Individuality is the state or quality of being an individual; a person separate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs, goals, and desires. Individualism and society edit Individualism holds that a person taking part in society attempts to learn and discover what his or her own interests are on a personal basis, without a presumed following of the interests of a societal structure (an individualist need not. The individualist does not follow one particular philosophy, rather creates an amalgamation of elements of many, based on personal interests in particular aspects that he/she finds of use. On a societal level, the individualist participates on a personally structured political and moral ground. Independent thinking and opinion is a common trait of an individualist.
upon one's own interests. 3, individualism is often defined in contrast to totalitarianism, collectivism, authoritarianism, communitarianism, statism, cosmopolitanism, tribalism, altruism, and more corporate social forms. 4 5, individualism makes the individual its focus 1 and so starts "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation." 6 Classical liberalism, existentialism, and anarchism are examples of movements that take the human individual. 6 Individualism thus involves "the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization". 7 It has also been used as a term denoting "The quality of being an individual; individuality" 3 related to possessing "An individual characteristic; a quirk." 3 Individualism is thus also associated with artistic and bohemian interests and lifestyles where there is a tendency towards. 9 10 Contents Etymology edit In the English language, the word "individualism" was first introduced, as a pejorative, by the Owenites in the late 1830s, although it is unclear if they were influenced by saint-Simonianism or came up with it independently. 11 A more positive use of the term in Britain came to be used with the writings of James Elishama Smith, who was a millenarian and a christian Israelite. Although an early Owenite socialist, he eventually rejected its collective idea of property, and found in individualism a "universalism" that allowed for the development of the "original genius." Without individualism, Smith argued, individuals cannot amass property to increase one's happiness. 11 William Maccall, another Unitarian preacher, and probably an acquaintance of Smith, came somewhat later, although influenced by john Stuart Mill, thomas Carlyle, and German Romanticism, to the same positive conclusions, in his 1847 work "Elements of Individualism". 12 The individual edit main article: Individual An individual is a person or any specific object in a collection.
Perfectionism little appreciation expressed among people for the work that others are doing; appreciation that is expressed usually directed to those who get the most of the credit anyway more common is to point out either how the person or work is inadequate or even more. Sense of Urgency continued sense of urgency that makes it difficult to take time to be inclusive, encourage democratic and/or thoughtful decision-making, to think long-term, to consider consequences frequently results in sacrificing potential allies for quick or highly visible results, for example sacrificing interests. Paternalism decision-making is clear to those with power and unclear to those without it those with power think they are capable of making decisions for and in the interests of those without power those with power often don't think it is important or necessary. As a result, many of our organizations, while saying we want to be multicultural, really only allow other people and cultures to come in if they adapt or conform to already existing cultural norms. Being able to identify and name the cultural norms and standards you want is a first step to making room for a truly multi-cultural organization. "Individual freedom" redirects here. For other uses, see personal freedom and personal liberty. Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
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White supremacy culture, from Dismantling Racism: a workbook for Social Change Groups, by kenneth Jones and Tema okun, ChangeWork, 2001. This is a list of characteristics of white supremacy culture which show up in our organizations. Culture is powerful precisely because it is so the present and at the same time so very difficult to name or identify. The characteristics listed below are damaging because they are used as norms and standards without being pro-actively named or chosen by the group. They are damaging because they promote white supremacy thinking. They are damaging to both people of color and to white people. Organizations that are people of color led or a majority people of color can also demonstrate many damaging characteristics of white supremacy culture.