Prenatal development essay

prenatal development essay

Factors Affecting, prenatal, development, essay - 1145 Words

Table 3 showing the mean, Standard deviation, Standard Error of mean and t ratio of Authoritarian parenting scores of mothers and fathers respectively as well as their 2-tail p value and its significance. Discussion, a child's development into adulthood involves a number of processes and various stages, working independently and inter-dependently that determine the kind of individual and member of society the child grows into. Psychologists like erickson, piaget, kohlberg, Freud and others have over the ages theorized the stages of many such developmental processes as the processes of moral development, cognitive development, psycho-social development etc. Socialization is one such important process that influences the child's development through its various agents. The most important of these agents is the family and in particular, parents. Considering the immense influence parents have in the psychological development of their child, great emphasis has been given to the methods and styles of parenting employed. People are becoming more aware of the consequences of their behaviour and attitudes toward their children on their development and their future. Parenting styles, as described by psychologist diana baumrind, have been found to have an effect on the child's self esteem (Bartle, anderson and Sabatelli,1989; Johnson, Shullman and Collins, 1991) and academic achievement (Dornbusch, ritter, leiderman, roberts and Fraleigh, 1987; Steinberg., 1989; Cohen rice.

The different Stages

Several studies were conducted to test the paq's reliability, internal consistency, content-related validity, criterion-related validity and discriminant-related validity. The results of these studies showed the paq to have highly respectable measures of reliability and validity. Procedure, in the present study, the two parental Authority questionnaires (mother and father) were administered to the participants, in groups of 20-30. The participants circled the number on the 5 point likert scale (1 Strongly disagree; 2 disagree; 3 neither agree nor disagree; 4 Agree; 5 Strongly Agree) that best described how that statement applied to them and their mother/father, during their years of growing. Results, the two questionnaires of each participant were scored by adding up the likert values of all the questions pertaining to each of the three parenting styles: Permissive, authoritarian and Authoritative (Democratic). First, the set of Permissive parenting scores were taken into consideration and a t test was run. The following results were obtained for Permissive parenting between the two income groups (Group1: Higher Income story Group, Group2: Lower Income Group of mothers and fathers respectively: Table 1 showing the mean, Standard deviation, Standard Error of mean and t ratio of Permissive parenting scores. Mother Father, the following results were obtained on examining the authoritative parenting scores. Table 2 showing the mean, Standard deviation, Standard Error of mean and t ratio of Authoritative parenting scores of mothers and fathers respectively as well as their 2-tail p value and its significance. Mother Father, the following results were obtained on examining the authoritarian parenting scores of both groups.

To choose the sample for the study, stratified sampling method was used. Participants of the lower ses group came from families whose monthly income did not exceed. 7000; in which the parents' educational experience was high school or less; and whose work is mostly manual labour. Participants of the higher ses group came from families that were relatively well off, whose monthly income exceeded Rs 50,000; and whose parents' educational experience ranged from at least a post graduation degree to a phD for the fathers and from at least an undergraduate. The professions of these parents included doctors, engineers, businessmen, chartered accountants etc. Materials, parental Authority questionnaire: The paq is designed to measure parental authority, or disciplinary practices, from the point of view of the child (of any age). The paq has three subscales: permissive (P: items 1, 6, 10, 13, 14, 17, essay 19, 21, 24 and 28 authoritarian (A: items 2, 3, 7, 9, 12, 16, 18, 25, 26 and 29 and authoritative/flexible (F: items 4, 5, 8, 11, 15, 20, 22,. Mother and father forms of the assessment are identical except for references to gender.

prenatal development essay

Prenatal, development, essay, example topics and Well Written, essays

Larzelere and Gerard Patterson in 1990 to test the hypothesis that the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on delinquency in early adolescence would be mediated entirely by parental management skills. Parental education and occupation were taken as measures of Socio-economic status when the child was in fourth grade; parental management skills were studied during the sixth grade and the child's delinquency in the seventh grade. This study found that, true to its hypothesis, there was no significant direct effect of socio-economic status on delinquency after controlling for parental management (parental monitoring and discipline). The researcher, in the current study, attempts to bring out the relationship between parenting and socio-economic status, which would then add to the results of such previous research as mentioned to say that the relationship that ses and parenting share independently might actually have. The hypothesis to be tested by this study is therefore, that parents of different socio-economic status apply different parenting styles. Method, participants, the participants were 60 students studying in class 10, in Hyderabad, in the age group of 14-15. 30 of these were from lower income families ( 7,000. P.m.) and the rest from middle and higher income families ( 50,000. Each group of 30 consisted of 15 girls and 15 boys as the researcher was also interested in noting any differences in perceptions of parenting styles between the sexes.

Prenatal, development, essays 1 - 30 Anti, essays

prenatal development essay

Stages, essay - 872 Words major Tests

He found that students of higher ses displayed more 'disengagement behaviours' such as fiddling and doodling while those of lower ses displayed more 'engagement behaviours' such as nodding and eyebrow raising. Ses does affect the thinking and behaviour of individuals. This summary fact forms the basis of a number of advertising strategies employed by various companies. For example, cigarette companies have targeted men, women and children of different socio-economic statuses differently, through their sophisticated advertising campaigns. It is therefore safe to say that not only does ses relate to physical health differences but that it also affects cognitive processes and social behaviours. Ses is associated with a wide variety of health, cognitive, and socio-emotional outcomes in children, with effects beginning prior to birth and continuing into adulthood. It is thus clear from all of the research work mentioned above that both parenting styles and socio-economic status have significant effects on the development dissertation and behaviour of an individual.

However, little research has been done on the relationship between the two factors themselves. As an important agent of socialization, the family and parents in particular, play a key role in the development of the child's self-concept and understanding of expected social roles. The parents themselves may be affected by a number of factors that contribute to the parenting styles and strategies adopted by them. Is socio-economic status one of these factors that affects parenting styles is the first question this study attempts to clarify. A study done by littman, moore pierce in the 1960s, concluded that there are no "general or profound differences in socialization practices as a function of social class." Since this study, conducted on a comparative basis in Chicago, eugene and Newton in the United States. "Parental Management: Mediator Of The Effect Of Socio-economic Status On Early delinquency" was a study done by robert.

Class is a powerful variable in the social sciences since a number of other factors are affected by it, from life expectancy to life satisfaction. Ses has been studied and proven to be correlative with social behaviours such as social deviance (Robert Merton, 1968 violent adolescent behaviour and delinquency (Karen heimer, 1997) and criminality (Braithwaite, 1981; Elliot ageton, 1980; Thornbury farnworth, 1982). Associations between socio-economic status and aggressiveness in school students were also found by australian youth studies (Demosthenous, hellene.; bourhours, Thierry, catherine., 2002). Studies also show that low ses is related to both behaviour problems in childhood (Kahn rs, wilson k, wise ph, 2005) and later schizophrenia (Werner s, malaspina d, rabinowitz j, 2007). It has been found that eating disorders are particularly prevalent among women in lower ses groups (Pate, pumariega, hester garner,1992; Rosen., 1988; root, 1990, Story., 1995).

A study by Christopher. Hudson, Phd, salem State college in 2005 revealed that there is a negative correlation between ses and mental illness which is to say that "the poorer one's socio-economic conditions are, the higher one's risk is for mental disability and psychiatric hospitalization." This correlation held true. Results of another study indicate that "social selection may be more important for schizophrenia and that social causation may be more important for depression in women and for antisocial personality and substance use disorders in men." (bp dohrenwend, i levav, pe shrout, s schwartz,. According to Bruce Eckland, children of higher economic class tend to be brighter, on average, than children of lower economic groups (65). Both prenatal stress and malnutrition impair development and are found much more frequently among lower socio-economic classes. (Health human Services 2000). A study by uc berkeley graduate student Michael Kraus in 2009 suggested a link between socio-economic status and body language.

Prenatal, development, essay - 796 Palabras Cram

As interrelated as these indicators are, they are not necessarily overlapping variables, which is why researchers tend to use one or another of them as a measure of ses. When the relationship between ses and health risk lost behaviours was studied, it was found that the risk of dying was significantly high for the lowest-income and middle-income groups. Mero, jieming Chen, 1998). Ses is said to be a significant predictor of self-reported physical health. Regula herzog, 1990) and ses has also been related to adolescent health (E. Adolescents of poor and low-income status have been found to be more likely than those of the higher income status to be in "fair or poor (versus good or excellent) health, have limitations in their activities, and have had behavioral or emotional problems" (Newacheck colleagues. Children of low ses are more likely to be born prematurely, at low birth event weight, with birth defects, or disabilities. (Crooks 1995, hawley disney 1992, us dep. Health human services 2000).

prenatal development essay

A., rice., 1997). Have shown that "having a father with an authoritarian parenting style is associated with an increased risk of engaging in delinquent activity and buy substance use. According to max Weber, social classes are "aggregates of individuals who have the same opportunities of acquiring the goods and the same exhibited standard of living." A number of factors such as income, occupation, wealth, education, life-styles etc. Decide the status of the individual. Depending on these factors, sociologists have divided the society into three classes: The lower Class, the middle Class and the Upper Class. Social class and socio-economic status (SES) are often taken to include not only levels of income and wealth but also the prestige of one's occupation and amount of education one has attained (John e farley, 1990). "Socio-economic status is a composite measure that typically incorporates economic status, measured by income; social status, measured by education; and work status, measured by occupation" (Dutton levin, 1989,.

demandingness and low responsiveness and permissive parenting that of low demandingness and high responsiveness. Research over the years has proved that authoritative parenting style is more related to higher levels of adjustment (Steinberg, mounts, lamborn, dornbusch, 1991 psychosocial maturity (Steinberg, Elmen, mounts, 1989 psychosocial competence (Lamborn, mounts, Steinberg, dornbusch, 1991 self-esteem (Bartle, anderson, sabatelli, 1989; Johnson, Shulman, collins, 1991. Authoritative parenting has also been associated with higher levels of optimism in late adolescence (as opposed to authoritarian parenting) (Debora ldwin, Anne McIntyre, elizabeth Hardaway, 2007 and adaptive adolescent achievement strategies "characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use. Kaisa aunola, hakan Stattin and Jari-Erik nurmi, 2000). Studies have also shown that authoritarian style of parenting may be linked to certain health issues such as obesity (Kyung. Appugliese, niko kaciroti, robert. Bradley, 2006) and permissive parenting (child's perception) has also been related to child tobacco and alcohol use (Cohen.

Failure to meet expectations is and treated in a nurturing and forgiving manner rather than punishing. Baumrind suggests that these parents "monitor and impart clear standards for their children's conduct. They are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. Their disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, self-regulated as well as cooperative" (1991 permissive parenting, wherein parents are least demanding of their children. They do not expect much from their children in terms of maturity and self-control and fail to discipline them. According to baumrind, permissive parents are "more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behaviour, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation." (1991).

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Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015 27th April, 2017. During childhood, the family environment "constitutes the basic social ecology in which the child's behavior is manifested, learned, encouraged or suppressed" (Dishion and Patterson 2006).Dishion,. In the 1960s, psychologist diana baumrind, using research methods such as naturalistic observation, parental interviews and other methods, identified four important dimensions of parenting: Disciplinary strategies, warmth and nurturance, communication styles and expectations of maturity and control. On the basis of these dimensions, baumrind suggested that three basic parenting styles are generally displayed by most parents. (Baumrind, 1967).The three parenting styles are: Authoritarian Parenting, a style of parenting characterized by the establishment of strict rules, the failure writing to follow which usually results in punishment. The reasoning behind the rules is not explained to the child. These parents are highly demanding and unresponsive to their children. According to baumrind, these parents "are obedience and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation." (1991 authoritative parenting, similar to authoritarian parenting, these parents establish strict rules and guidelines that the children are expected to follow. However, the difference is that the parenting is more democratic in nature in that these parents are more responsive to their children and allow for an open dialogue and space for questioning authority.

Prenatal development essay
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