Thesis on retailing

thesis on retailing

Thesis dissertation Topics on Logistics, supply Chain

To other analysts the delay between cra rule changes (in 1995) and the explosion of subprime lending is not surprising, and does not exonerate the cra. They contend that there were two, connected causes to the crisis: the relaxation of underwriting standards in 1995 and the ultra-low interest rates initiated by the federal Reserve after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001. Both causes had to be in place before the crisis could take place. 68 Critics also point out that publicly announced cra loan commitments were massive, totaling.5 trillion in the years between 1969 They also argue that the federal Reserve's classification of cra loans as "prime" is based on the faulty and self-serving assumption that high-interest-rate loans. 70 Others have pointed out that there were not enough of these loans made to cause a crisis of this magnitude. In an article in Portfolio magazine, michael Lewis spoke with one trader who noted that "There weren't enough Americans with bad credit taking out bad loans to satisfy investors' appetite for the end product." Essentially, investment banks and hedge funds used financial innovation to enable.

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Wallison 60 stated his belief that the roots of the financial crisis can be traced directly and primarily to affordable housing policies initiated by the us department of housing and Urban development (HUD) in the 1990s and to massive risky loan purchases by government-sponsored entities. Later, based upon information in the sec's December 2011 securities fraud case against six after former executives of Fannie and Freddie, peter Wallison and Edward Pinto estimated that, in 2008, fannie and Freddie held 13 million substandard loans totaling over 2 trillion. 61 In the early and mid-2000s, the bush administration called numerous times 62 for investigation into the safety and soundness of the gses and their swelling portfolio of subprime mortgages. On September 10, 2003, the house financial Services Committee held a hearing at the urging of the administration to assess safety and soundness issues and to review a recent report by the Office of Federal housing Enterprise oversight (ofheo) that had uncovered accounting discrepancies within. 63 The hearings never resulted in new legislation or formal investigation of Fannie mae and Freddie mac, as many of the committee members refused to accept the report and instead rebuked ofheo for their attempt at regulation. 64 Some believe this was an early warning to the systemic risk that the growing market in subprime mortgages posed essay to the us financial system that went unheeded. 65 A 2000 United States Department of the Treasury study of lending trends for 305 cities from 1993 to 1998 showed that 467 billion of mortgage lending was made by community reinvestment Act (CRA)-covered lenders into low and mid level income (LMI) borrowers and neighborhoods, representing. The majority of these were prime loans. Sub-prime loans made by cra-covered institutions constituted a 3 market share of lmi loans in 1998, 66 but in the run-up to the crisis, fully 25 of all sub-prime lending occurred at cra-covered institutions and another 25 of sub-prime loans had some connection with cra. 67 Furthermore, most sub-prime loans were not made to the lmi borrowers targeted by the cra, especially in the years leading up to the crisis, nor did it find any evidence that lending under the cra rules increased delinquency rates or that the cra indirectly.

26 The worst loans were originated in 20042007, the years of the most intense competition between securitizers and the lowest market share for the gses. Us subprime lending expanded dramatically As well as easy credit conditions, there is evidence that competitive pressures contributed to an increase in the amount of subprime lending during the years preceding the crisis. Major how us investment banks and gses such as Fannie mae played an important role in the expansion of lending, with gses eventually relaxing their standards to try to catch up with the private banks. 55 56 A contrarian view is that Fannie mae and Freddie mac led the way to relaxed underwriting standards, starting in 1995, by advocating the use of easy-to-qualify automated underwriting and appraisal systems, by designing the no-down-payment products issued by lenders, by the promotion. 57 58 Depending on how "subprime" mortgages are defined, they remained below 10 of all mortgage originations until 2004, when they rose to nearly 20 and remained there through the peak of the United States housing bubble. 59 The majority report of the financial Crisis Inquiry commission, written by the six Democratic appointees, the minority report, written by three of the four Republican appointees, studies by federal Reserve economists, and the work of several independent scholars generally contend that government affordable housing. 26 Although they concede that governmental policies had some role in causing the crisis, they contend that gse loans performed better than loans securitized by private investment banks, and performed better than some loans originated by institutions that held loans in their own portfolios. 26 In his dissent to the majority report of the financial Crisis Inquiry commission, American Enterprise Institute fellow Peter.

thesis on retailing

Thesis, dissertation Topics:Supply Chain Management

52 It concluded that. The crisis was avoidable and was caused by: widespread failures in financial regulation, including the federal Reserve's failure to stem the tide of toxic mortgages ; dramatic breakdowns in corporate governance including too many financial firms acting recklessly and taking on too much risk;. — Financial Crisis essay Inquiry commission Press Release january 27, 2011 53 Subprime lending edit main article: Subprime mortgage crisis The 2000s were the decade of subprime borrowers; no longer was this a segment left to fringe lenders. The relaxing of credit lending standards by investment banks and commercial banks drove this about-face. Subprime did not become magically less risky; Wall Street just accepted this higher risk. 54 During a period of tough competition between mortgage lenders for revenue and market share, and when the supply of creditworthy borrowers was limited, mortgage lenders relaxed underwriting standards and originated riskier mortgages to less creditworthy borrowers. 26 In the view of some analysts, the relatively conservative government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) policed mortgage originators and maintained relatively high underwriting standards prior to 2003. However, as market power shifted from securitizers to originators and as intense competition from private securitizers undermined gse power, mortgage standards declined and risky loans proliferated.

46 Share in gdp of us financial sector since 1860 49 While the housing and credit bubbles were building, a series of factors caused the financial system to both expand and become increasingly fragile, a process called financialization. Us government policy from the 1970s onward has emphasized deregulation to encourage business, which resulted in less oversight of activities and less disclosure of information about new activities undertaken by banks and other evolving financial institutions. Thus, policymakers did not immediately recognize the increasingly important role played by financial institutions such as investment banks and hedge funds, also known as the shadow banking system. Some experts believe these institutions had become as important as commercial (depository) banks in providing credit to the us economy, but they were not subject to the same regulations. 50 These institutions, as well as certain regulated banks, had also assumed significant debt burdens while providing the loans described above and did not have a financial cushion sufficient to absorb large loan defaults or mbs losses. 51 These losses affected the ability of financial institutions to lend, slowing economic activity. Concerns regarding the stability of key financial institutions drove central banks to provide funds to encourage lending and restore faith in the commercial paper markets, which are integral to funding business operations. Governments also bailed out key financial institutions and implemented economic stimulus programs, assuming significant additional financial commitments. The us financial Crisis Inquiry commission reported its findings in January 2011.

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thesis on retailing

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23 24 Already-rising default rates on " subprime " and adjustable-rate mortgages (ARM) began to increase quickly thereafter. Easy availability of credit in the us, fueled by large inflows of foreign funds after the russian debt crisis and Asian financial crisis of the period, led to a housing construction boom and facilitated debt-financed consumer spending. As banks began to give out more loans to potential home owners, housing prices began to rise. Lax lending standards and rising and real estate prices also contributed to the real estate bubble. Loans of various types (e.g., mortgage, credit card, and auto) were easy to obtain and consumers assumed an unprecedented debt load. As part of the housing and credit booms, the number of financial agreements called mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and collateralized debt obligations (cdo which derived their value from mortgage payments and housing prices, greatly increased. 26 Such financial innovation enabled institutions and investors around the world to invest in the us housing market.

As housing prices declined, major global financial institutions that had borrowed and invested heavily in subprime mbs reported significant losses. 46 Falling prices also resulted in homes worth less than the mortgage loan, providing the lender with a financial incentive to enter foreclosure. Clarification needed The ongoing foreclosure epidemic that began in late 2006 in the us and only reduced to historical levels in early 2014 47 drained significant wealth from consumers, losing up.2 trillion 48 in wealth from home equity. Defaults and losses on other loan types also increased significantly as the crisis expanded from the housing market to other parts of the economy. Total losses are estimated in the trillions of us dollars globally.

Questions regarding bank solvency, declines in credit availability, and damaged investor confidence affected global stock markets, where securities suffered large losses during 2008 and early 2009. Economies worldwide slowed during this period, as credit tightened and international trade declined. 31 governments and central banks responded with unprecedented fiscal stimulus, monetary policy expansion and institutional bailouts. 32 In the us, congress passed the American Recovery and reinvestment Act of 2009. Background causes edit many causes for the financial crisis have been suggested, with varying weight assigned by experts.


33 The us senate's levinCoburn Report concluded that the crisis was the result of "high risk, complex financial products; undisclosed conflicts of interest; the failure of regulators, the credit rating agencies, and the market itself to rein in the excesses of Wall Street." 34 The. repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act effectively removed the separation between investment banks and depository banks in the United States. 36 Critics argued that credit rating agencies 37 38 and investors failed to accurately price the risk involved with mortgage -related financial products, and that governments did not adjust their regulatory practices to address 21st-century financial markets. 39 Research into the causes of the financial crisis has also focused on the role of interest rate spreads. 40 fair value accounting was issued as us accounting standard sfas 157 in 2006 by the privately run Financial Accounting Standards board (fasb)—delegated by the sec with the task of establishing financial reporting standards. 41 This required that tradable assets such as mortgage securities be valued according to their current market value rather than their historic cost or some future expected value. When the market for such securities became volatile and collapsed, the resulting loss of value had a major financial effect upon the institutions holding them even if they had no immediate plans to sell them. 42 main article: causes of the Great Recession The immediate cause or trigger of the crisis was the bursting of the us housing bubble, which peaked in 2006/2007.

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In spite of trillions 19 paid out by the essays us federal government, it became much more difficult to borrow money. The resulting decrease in buyers caused housing prices to plummet. Consequences edit While the collapse of large financial institutions was prevented by the bailout of banks by national governments, stock markets still dropped worldwide. In many areas, the housing market also suffered, resulting in evictions, foreclosures, and prolonged unemployment. The crisis played a significant role in the failure of key businesses, declines in consumer wealth estimated in trillions of us dollars, and a downturn in economic activity leading to the Great Recession of and contributing to the european sovereign-debt crisis. 20 21 The active phase of the crisis, which manifested as a liquidity crisis, can be dated from August 9, 2007, when bnp paribas terminated withdrawals from three hedge funds citing "a complete evaporation of liquidity". 22 The bursting of the us housing bubble, which peaked at the end of 2006, 23 24 caused the values of securities tied to us real estate pricing to plummet, damaging financial institutions globally. 25 26 The financial crisis was triggered by a complex interplay of policies that encouraged home ownership, providing easier access to loans for subprime borrowers; overvaluation essay of bundled subprime mortgages based on the theory that housing prices would continue to escalate; questionable trading practices.

thesis on retailing

This appreciation in value beginner led large numbers of homeowners (subprime or not) to borrow against their homes as an apparent windfall. This "bubble" would be burst by a rising single-family residential mortgages delinquency rate beginning in August 2006 and peaking in the first quarter, 2010. 18 The high delinquency rates led to a rapid devaluation of financial instruments (mortgage-backed securities including bundled loan portfolios, derivatives and credit default swaps). As the value of these assets plummeted, the market (buyers) for these securities evaporated and banks who were heavily invested in these assets began to experience a liquidity crisis. Freddie mac and Fannie mae were taken over by the federal government on September 7, 2008. Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy on September 15, 2008. Merrill Lynch, aig, hbos, royal Bank of Scotland, bradford bingley, fortis, hypo real Estate, and Alliance leicester were all expected to follow—with a us federal bailout announced the following day beginning with 85 billion to aig.

9 Because mortgage lenders could pass these mortgages (and the associated risks) on in this way, they could and did adopt loose underwriting criteria (due in part to outdated and lax regulation). Lax regulation allowed predatory lending in the private sector, 10 11 especially after the federal government overrode anti-predatory state laws in 2004. 12 The community reinvestment Act (cra 13 a us federal law designed to help low- and moderate-income Americans get mortgage loans encouraged banks to grant mortgages to higher risk families. Many of the subprime (high risk) loans were bundled and sold, finally accruing to quasi-government agencies ( Fannie mae and Freddie mac ). 17 The implicit guarantee by the us federal government created a moral hazard and contributed to a glut of risky lending. The accumulation and subsequent high default rate of these subprime mortgages led to the financial crisis and the consequent damage to the world economy. Banking crisis edit high mortgage approval rates led to a large pool of homebuyers, which drove up housing prices.

The crisis was nonetheless followed by a global economic downturn, the, great Recession. The, european debt crisis, a crisis in the banking system of the european countries using hard the euro, followed later. DoddFrank wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was enacted in the us following the crisis to "promote the financial stability of the United States". 7 The basel iii capital and liquidity standards were adopted by countries around the world. 8 Contents Summary edit subprime mortgage bubble edit The precipitating factor for the financial Crisis of was a high default rate in the United States subprime home mortgage sector the bursting of the "subprime bubble". While the causes of the bubble are disputed, some or all of the following factors must have contributed. Low interest rates encouraged mortgage lending.

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This article is about the financial crisis that peaked in 2008. For the global recession triggered by the financial crisis, see. The, tED spread (in red) increased significantly during the financial crisis, reflecting an increase in perceived credit risk, world map showing real gdp growth rates for 2009 (Countries in brown were in recession.). The financial crisis of, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the, great Depression of the 1930s. 1 2 3 4, it began in 2007 with a crisis in the subprime mortgage market in the United States, and developed into a full-blown international banking crisis with the collapse of the investment bank. Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008. 5, essays excessive risk-taking by banks such as Lehman Brothers helped to magnify the financial impact globally. 6, massive bail-outs of financial institutions and other palliative monetary and fiscal policies were employed to prevent a possible collapse of the world financial system.


Thesis on retailing
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